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A Political and Economic Dictionary

Auteur :
Éditeur : Europa Publications Date & Lieu : 2004, London
Préface : Pages : 764
Traduction : ISBN : 1-85743-212-6
Langue : AnglaisFormat : 155x230 mm
Thème : Dictionnaires

Table des Matières Introduction Identité PDF
A Political and Economic Dictionary

A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East

The boundaries selected for this first Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East may appear somewhat arbitrary. It is difficult to define precisely ‘the Middle East’: this foreword attempts to explain the reasoning behind my selection. For the purposes of this Dictionary, the region includes six countries and one disputed territory in North Africa (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt and Western Sahara), eight countries in Western Asia (Jordan, Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Iraq and Iran), seven in Arabia (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain and Yemen), five newly independent states in southern Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) and Afghanistan. It also, somewhat controversially, includes the ‘Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus’. (A full treatment of Cyprus will appear in the companion volume A Political and Economic Dictionary of Western Europe.)

We have chosen not to include all of the countries where Arabic is spoken, although, arguably, many of the countries of the Sahelian region just south of the Sahara (Mali, Niger, Chad, Sudan), constitute in some sense a part of the ‘Arab world’, as do Djibouti and Comoros. These countries appear in a companion volume, A Political and Economic Dictionary of Africa. We have also chosen not to include Pakistan, despite its close links with Afghanistan, seeing it as more properly treated within the context of South Asia as a whole—although it is not ignored here either. Nor have we included the Caucasus region, despite its links with the Middle East.

We have, by contrast, chosen to include the predominantly Arabic-speaking countries of western North Africa (the Maghreb), including Mauritania (which is a member of the Arab Maghreb Union) and the non-Arabic-speaking countries in the northern part of the region that are sometimes referred to as ‘the northern tier’—Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan—and the relatively new independent republics in southern Central Asia, which previously constituted a part of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) or Soviet Union. The countries of Arabia and the Gulf constitute a distinctive yet integral part of the Middle East, while the history and location of Israel, despite its extraordinary characteristics, ensures that it remains, as it has done at least since 1948, at the centre of Middle Eastern politics...

Anfal campaign
The campaign against the Kurds waged by the Iraqi regime in 1988, during which poison gas was used on cities, including Halabja. Some 100,000 civilians were killed, more than 4,000 villages were destroyed and nearly 1m. people displaced.




David Seddon


First Edition 2004 Europa Publications Haines House, 21 John Street, London WC1N 2BP,
United Kingdom (A member of the Taylor & Francis Group)
This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005.
“To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of
thousands of eBooks please go to”

© David Seddon 2004

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be photocopied, recorded, or otherwise
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any electronic or
mechanical means without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

ISBN 0-203-40291-X Master e-book ISBN
ISBN 0-203-40992-2 (Adobe e-Reader Format)
ISBN 1 85743 212 6 (Print Edition)

Development Editor: Cathy Hartley
Copy Editor and Proof-reader: Simon Chapman

The publishers make no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the
information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility for any errors or
omissions that may take place.


David Seddon is Professor of Development Studies at the University of East Anglia (UEA). His disciplinary focus is in politics, political economy, sociology and social anthropology, and his research interests lie in rural development, social welfare, social and popular movements, the political and social implications of macro policy, long-term change, class, race and gender. His geographical focus is Africa, North Africa and the Middle East, South Asia and Eastern Europe. David Seddon is also the Co-ordinator of the Steering Committee of UEA’s new Saharan Studies Programme, a collaboration between the Schools of Development Studies, Environmental Sciences, Medicine, and World Art and Museology.


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